Sunday, 17 December 2017

Who is the owner of Internet? How does the Internet works?

Nowadays internet is increasing day by day due to the cheap smartphone and cheaper data plan. Millions of people in the world are connecting to the Internet every day and share information with each other. This information could be in the form of image, video or text. Many people will have a question in their minds that who is the owner of the Internet? The answer is not so simple but it is not difficult also, so we will talk about this here.

A lot of people would have believed that there will be a US company which provides the internet to the service providers of different countries of the world but this is not at all.To understand this first we need to know how it works? 

How does the internet works?

If we Talk about the Internet, two things are very important first is the website and the other is its server. A website is for user’s interaction and server controls the website and stores the data of website and it will fetch data for the user from its storage.Now the user and server of any website they both are connected with each other via the network and this network could be wired or wireless or combination of both but I not going to talk about any technology here.


Millions of users can be on one website at a time which is connected to the server. For Example, we log in to the Facebook from mobile or laptop and whatever data or information we are getting that is fetched from the Facebook server but I am in India and the server is in California, US. Here there must be one physical connection which could be wired, wireless or combination of both that connect one user in India to the server located in the US.Now,I think you got some understanding of how to it works. 

Who is the owner of the internet? 

There are internet service providers (IPSs) in every country which provide internet services to the local users but every ISPs doesn’t have such giant infrastructure that can connect one server in the US to the users in all countries of the world. But still, these ISPs provide the services to its customers for every website.For example, in India Airtel, Vodafone, Idea, Reliance JIO are big ISPs or local broadband service providers like Hathway, Tikona, etc but they don’t have their own physical connectivity with the serves in the US so how they are providing services to their customers.Well, the answer is there are different levels of ISPs that provide the different level of services we categories these IPSs in three tiers or level which is tier1,tier2, and tier3.

Tier 1 ISPs

They provide the connectivity between different counties or continents via optical fiber cable. They have installed Optical fiber cables in the sea using their own money. This type of ISP is called tier 1 which are AT&T, Verizon, Level 3, NTT, DoCoMo, TaTa etc.They are also called as the internet backbone. These are the companies which have connected Asian counties to the US, European countries to the US and vice versa through installing their own cables in the sea. Obviously, they have spent a lot of money. Now we talk about tier 2.

Internet Service Providers

Tier 2 ISPs

In tier 2 there are some companies which have the big network on countrywide, they are purchasing worldwide internet connectivity called transit services from tier 1 and provide peering services also to other ISPs. In the USA it is NTT America, Telia, Global Telecom and Technology(GTT) and in India, it is Airtel, Vodafone, Idea, Reliance JIO, BSNL which provide such services. 

Peering: Generally, the two IPSs are exchanging their traffic with each other for free of cost is called peering. For example, one ISP name A doesn’t have connectivity in California and other ISP name B doesn’t have connectivity in New York.So A and B will provide connectivity or network resources to each other.A will provide connectivity to B in New York and B will provide connectivity to A in California, of course at free of cost but their traffic should be same.  

Tier 3 ISPs

These service providers purchase internet connection from tier2 ISPs and sometimes from tier 1 also. They have very limited subscriber area it could be one city or one state also. Some local Broadband service providers will come in this tier.

The overall conclusion is tier1 ISPs who provide worldwide connectivity, Tier2 ISPs who provide data connectivity country level and tier3 who provide connectivity to the city level. But we can say that tier1 ISPs act as a backbone between tier2 and website server. So we can’t say for particular person or organization is the owner of the internet. For Example, if any company have optical fiber cable in the sea and it has in one country full connectivity still that company can’t be the owner of the internet because it doesn’t have its own connectivity or infra in other counties of the world.So,the internet depends on the physical infrastructure of networks which could be wired or wireless which cover all countries of the world and it is not possible for any organization or person to build such giant physical infrastructure. 

So I hope you understood now about the owner of the internet. I hope you like this article please share it and you have any question write in the comment. We will try to answer your question.
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Mahefooz Khan is the owner of MKVidz360 website and Youtube channel also.He is a blogger and Youtuber from India.He writes the article on technology and other helpful information for peoples.